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dc.contributor.authorStaes, Nicky
dc.contributor.authorStevens, Jeroen M. G.
dc.contributor.authorHelsen, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorHillyer, Mia
dc.contributor.authorKorody, Marisa L.
dc.contributor.authorEens, Marcel
dc.date.accessioned2020-07-14T19:47:00Z
dc.date.available2020-07-14T19:47:00Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0113364
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/539
dc.description.abstractRecent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ~360 bp in this region (+/- DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.urlhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0113364
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
dc.subjectSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
dc.subjectBONOBOS
dc.subjectCHIMPANZEES
dc.subjectGENETICS
dc.subjectEXPERIMENTAL METHODS
dc.titleOxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees
dc.typeArticle
dc.source.journaltitlePLOS ONE
dc.source.volume9
dc.source.issue11
dc.source.beginpagee113364
dc.source.endpagee113364
dcterms.dateAccepted2014
refterms.dateFOA2020-07-14T19:47:00Z
html.description.abstractRecent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ~360 bp in this region (+/- DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.


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This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.