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dc.contributor.authorMiller, Lance J.
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Jeff
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-28T20:55:43Z
dc.date.available2020-08-28T20:55:43Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.issn0889-3667
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/652
dc.description.abstractOne of the many goals of zoological institutions is to actively breed endangered species to enhance conservation efforts. Unfortunately, many of these species are not reproducing at high enough levels to sustain populations within zoos. Low reproductive success and high infant mortality are two areas of concern for some of these species. Collecting behavioral data on developmental milestones following successful births can create a database of information to aide animal management to help make more informed decisions during subsequent births. The current study provides valuable information for African elephant calf developmental norms and demonstrates how data on first occurrences, nursing behavior and growth patterns can aide animal management. Data were collected on eleven African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA of which ten have survived. Results show that on average African elephant calves were standing within 40 minutes, attempted to nurse within an hour and a half, and successfully nursed within six hrs. There were no significant differences in nursing rates, growth patterns, or first occurrence behaviors between males and females during the first 75 days of life and elephants gained on average 0.59 kg/day over that same period of time. Results also show a significant change in nursing behavior on day 22 for the elephant calf that died. This information is intended to serve as a resource for elephant managers with newborn African elephants and to serve as a model to develop similar type databases for other species in need within zoological institutions.
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.urlhttps://escholarship.org/uc/item/2bj7k018
dc.rightsCopyright 2013 by the International Society for Comparative Psychology
dc.rights.uri
dc.subjectENDANGERED SPECIES
dc.subjectZOO ANIMALS
dc.subjectBEHAVIOR
dc.subjectREPRODUCTION
dc.subjectCARE OF YOUNG
dc.subjectAFRICAN ELEPHANTS
dc.subjectSAFARI PARK
dc.subjectCALIFORNIA
dc.titleUtilizing first occurrence, nursing behavior, and growth data to enhance animal management: An example with African elephants (Loxodonta africana)
dc.typeArticle
dc.source.journaltitleInternational Journal of Comparative Psychology
dc.source.volume26
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage19
dc.source.endpage25
html.description.abstractOne of the many goals of zoological institutions is to actively breed endangered species to enhance conservation efforts. Unfortunately, many of these species are not reproducing at high enough levels to sustain populations within zoos. Low reproductive success and high infant mortality are two areas of concern for some of these species. Collecting behavioral data on developmental milestones following successful births can create a database of information to aide animal management to help make more informed decisions during subsequent births. The current study provides valuable information for African elephant calf developmental norms and demonstrates how data on first occurrences, nursing behavior and growth patterns can aide animal management. Data were collected on eleven African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA of which ten have survived. Results show that on average African elephant calves were standing within 40 minutes, attempted to nurse within an hour and a half, and successfully nursed within six hrs. There were no significant differences in nursing rates, growth patterns, or first occurrence behaviors between males and females during the first 75 days of life and elephants gained on average 0.59 kg/day over that same period of time. Results also show a significant change in nursing behavior on day 22 for the elephant calf that died. This information is intended to serve as a resource for elephant managers with newborn African elephants and to serve as a model to develop similar type databases for other species in need within zoological institutions.


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    Works by SDZG's Institute for Conservation Research staff and co-authors. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

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