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dc.contributor.authorReeder, N.M.M.
dc.contributor.authorPessier, Allan P.
dc.contributor.authorVredenburg, V.T.
dc.date.accessioned2020-11-06T23:16:16Z
dc.date.available2020-11-06T23:16:16Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.doiDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033567
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/770
dc.description.abstractChytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is driving amphibian declines and extinctions in protected areas globally. The introduction of invasive reservoir species has been implicated in the spread of Bd but does not explain the appearance of the pathogen in remote protected areas. In the high elevation (>1500 m) Sierra Nevada of California, the native Pacific chorus frog, Pseudacris regilla, appears unaffected by chytridiomycosis while sympatric species experience catastrophic declines. We investigated whether P. regilla is a reservoir of Bd by comparing habitat occupancy before and after a major Bd outbreak and measuring infection in P. regilla in the field, monitoring susceptibility of P. regilla to Bd in the laboratory, examining tissues with histology to determine patterns of infection, and using an innovative soak technique to determine individual output of Bd zoospores in water. Pseudacris regilla persists at 100% of sites where a sympatric species has been extirpated from 72% in synchrony with a wave of Bd. In the laboratory, P. regilla carried loads of Bd as much as an order of magnitude higher than loads found lethal to sympatric species. Histology shows heavy Bd infection in patchy areas next to normal skin, a possible mechanism for tolerance. The soak technique was 77.8% effective at detecting Bd in water and showed an average output of 68 zoospores per minute per individual. The results of this study suggest P. regilla should act as a Bd reservoir and provide evidence of a tolerance mechanism in a reservoir species....
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.urihttps://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033567
dc.rights© 2012 Reeder et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectAMPHIBIANS
dc.subjectDISEASES
dc.subjectFUNGI
dc.subjectPATHOLOGY
dc.subjectEXTINCTION
dc.subjectENDANGERED SPECIES
dc.subjectHABITATS
dc.subjectINFECTION
dc.subjectHISTOLOGY
dc.subjectCALIFORNIA
dc.subjectMOUNTAINS
dc.subjectINVASIVE SPECIES
dc.subjectTHERAPY
dc.subjectPHARMACOLOGY
dc.subjectMOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROGS
dc.titleA reservoir species for the emerging amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis thrives in a landscape decimated by disease.
dc.typeArticle
dc.source.journaltitlePLoS ONE
dc.source.volume7
dc.source.issue3
dc.source.beginpagee33567
dcterms.dateAccepted
refterms.dateFOA2020-11-06T23:20:12Z
html.description.abstractChytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is driving amphibian declines and extinctions in protected areas globally. The introduction of invasive reservoir species has been implicated in the spread of Bd but does not explain the appearance of the pathogen in remote protected areas. In the high elevation (>1500 m) Sierra Nevada of California, the native Pacific chorus frog, Pseudacris regilla, appears unaffected by chytridiomycosis while sympatric species experience catastrophic declines. We investigated whether P. regilla is a reservoir of Bd by comparing habitat occupancy before and after a major Bd outbreak and measuring infection in P. regilla in the field, monitoring susceptibility of P. regilla to Bd in the laboratory, examining tissues with histology to determine patterns of infection, and using an innovative soak technique to determine individual output of Bd zoospores in water. Pseudacris regilla persists at 100% of sites where a sympatric species has been extirpated from 72% in synchrony with a wave of Bd. In the laboratory, P. regilla carried loads of Bd as much as an order of magnitude higher than loads found lethal to sympatric species. Histology shows heavy Bd infection in patchy areas next to normal skin, a possible mechanism for tolerance. The soak technique was 77.8% effective at detecting Bd in water and showed an average output of 68 zoospores per minute per individual. The results of this study suggest P. regilla should act as a Bd reservoir and provide evidence of a tolerance mechanism in a reservoir species....


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© 2012 Reeder et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2012 Reeder et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.