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dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Terrie M.
dc.contributor.authorJørgensen, Mads Peter-Heide
dc.contributor.authorPagano, Anthony M.
dc.contributor.authorBryce, Caleb M.
dc.date.accessioned2020-11-17T21:18:34Z
dc.date.available2020-11-17T21:18:34Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.issn1365-2435
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/1365-2435.13649
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/782
dc.descriptionThe pervasive presence of human activities on land and the seas has toppled the top-of-the-food-chain position of many apex predators. Mammalian carnivores such as lions, wolves, polar bears and even narwhals are suddenly experiencing a downgrading from acting as ultimate hunters to being hunted. In this review, we investigated how changing from hunter to hunted altered the energy expended with each role, and ultimately the cost of survival during peak performance. Both terrestrial and marine mammals doubled the amount of energy they expended when threatened compared to when they acted as hunters. These costs will ultimately result in ecological consequences, especially as the duration and frequency of threats to wild species continue to grow and cumulative energetic costs become more apparent. Greater attention to the specific energy demands of apex predators is warranted and will allow for conservation strategies to be based on how these critical species were originally built.
dc.description.abstractGlobal biotic and abiotic threats, particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted….
dc.description.sponsorship
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.urlhttps://besjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1365-2435.13649
dc.rights© 2020 British Ecological Society
dc.subjectCARNIVORES
dc.subjectANIMAL-HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
dc.subjectMAMMALS
dc.subjectMARINE MAMMALS
dc.subjectCONSERVATION
dc.subjectBEHAVIOR
dc.subjectPREDATION
dc.subjectENERGY
dc.titleHunters versus hunted: New perspectives on the energetic costs of survival at the top of the food chain
dc.typeArticle
dc.source.journaltitleFunctional Ecology
dc.source.volume34
dc.source.issue10
dc.source.beginpage2015
dc.source.endpage2029
html.description.abstractGlobal biotic and abiotic threats, particularly from pervasive human activities, are progressively pushing large, apex carnivorous mammals into the functional role of mesopredator. Hunters are now becoming the hunted….


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    Peer reviewed and scientific works by San Diego Zoo Global staff. Includes books, book sections, articles and conference publications and presentations.

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