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dc.contributor.authorGoto, Hiroki
dc.contributor.authorRyder, Oliver A.
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Allison R.
dc.contributor.authorSchultz, Bryant
dc.contributor.authorKosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.
dc.contributor.authorNekrutenko, Anton
dc.contributor.authorMakova, Kateryna D.
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-02T01:45:36Z
dc.date.available2021-02-02T01:45:36Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.issn1759-6653
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/gbe/evr067
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/849
dc.description.abstractThe endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.
dc.description.sponsorship
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.urlhttps://academic.oup.com/gbe/article/doi/10.1093/gbe/evr067/588305
dc.rightsª The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/ 3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/ 3.0
dc.subjectENDANGERED SPECIES
dc.subjectPRZEWALSKI'S HORSES
dc.subjectEVOLUTION
dc.subjectTAXONOMIES
dc.subjectBIODIVERSITY
dc.subjectGENOMICS
dc.subjectEXPERIMENTAL METHODS
dc.subjectHUSBANDRY
dc.subjectDOMESTIC ANIMALS
dc.subjectHORSES
dc.subjectCHROMOSOMES
dc.titleA massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses
dc.typeArticle
dc.source.journaltitleGenome Biology and Evolution
dc.source.volume3
dc.source.beginpage1096
dc.source.endpage1106
refterms.dateFOA2021-02-02T02:20:55Z
html.description.abstractThe endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity of Przewalski's horses, we used massively parallel sequencing technology to decipher the complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes for all four surviving maternal lineages of Przewalski's horses. Unlike single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing usually affected by ascertainment bias, the present method is expected to be largely unbiased. Three mitochondrial haplotypes were discovered—two similar ones, haplotypes I/II, and one substantially divergent from the other two, haplotype III. Haplotypes I/II versus III did not cluster together on a phylogenetic tree, rejecting the monophyly of Przewalski's horse maternal lineages, and were estimated to split 0.117–0.186 Ma, significantly preceding horse domestication. In the phylogeny based on autosomal sequences, Przewalski's horses formed a monophyletic clade, separate from the Thoroughbred domestic horse lineage. Our results suggest that Przewalski's horses have ancient origins and are not the direct progenitors of domestic horses. The analysis of the vast amount of sequence data presented here suggests that Przewalski's and domestic horse lineages diverged at least 0.117 Ma but since then have retained ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or experienced gene flow.


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ª The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/
3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as ª The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/ 3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.