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dc.contributor.authorPartin, Teagen G.
dc.contributor.authorSchrenzel, Mark D.
dc.contributor.authorBraun, Josephine
dc.contributor.authorWitte, Carmel L.
dc.contributor.authorKubiski, Steven V.
dc.contributor.authorLee, Justin
dc.contributor.authorRideout, Bruce
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-11T00:43:02Z
dc.date.available2021-02-11T00:43:02Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.eissn1932-6203
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0246162
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12634/878
dc.description.abstractGammaherpesvirus infections are ubiquitous in captive and free-ranging ruminants and are associated with a variety of clinical diseases ranging from subclinical or mild inflammatory syndromes to fatal diseases such as malignant catarrhal fever. Gammaherpesvirus infections have been fully characterized in only a few ruminant species, and the overall diversity, host range, and biologic effects of most are not known. This study investigated the presence and host distribution of gammaherpesviruses in ruminant species at two facilities, the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. We tested antemortem (blood, nasal or oropharyngeal swabs) or postmortem (internal organs) samples from 715 healthy or diseased ruminants representing 96 species and subspecies, using a consensus-based herpesvirus PCR for a segment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Among the 715 animals tested, 161 (22.5%) were PCR and sequencing positive for herpesvirus, while only 11 (6.83%) of the PCR positive animals showed clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever. Forty-four DPOL genotypes were identified of which only 10 have been reported in GenBank. The data describe viral diversity within species and individuals, identify host ranges of potential new viruses, and address the proclivity and consequences of interspecies transmission during management practices in zoological parks. The discovery of new viruses with wide host ranges and presence of co-infection within individual animals also suggest that the evolutionary processes influencing Gammaherpesvirus diversity are more complex than previously recognized.
dc.description.sponsorshipCharles and Shirley Sykesen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)en_US
dc.rights© 2021 Partin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectSAN DIEGO ZOOen_US
dc.subjectSAFARI PARKen_US
dc.subjectRUMINANTSen_US
dc.subjectVIROLOGYen_US
dc.subjectDEERen_US
dc.subjectGIRAFFESen_US
dc.subjectOKAPISen_US
dc.subjectBOVIDAEen_US
dc.subjectDIAGNOSISen_US
dc.subjectANTELOPINAEen_US
dc.subjectINFECTIONen_US
dc.titleHerpesvirus surveillance and discovery in zoo-housed ruminantsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.source.journaltitlePLOS Oneen_US
dc.source.volume16en_US
dc.source.issue1en_US
dc.source.beginpagee0246162en_US
refterms.dateFOA2021-02-11T00:43:03Z
html.description.abstractGammaherpesvirus infections are ubiquitous in captive and free-ranging ruminants and are associated with a variety of clinical diseases ranging from subclinical or mild inflammatory syndromes to fatal diseases such as malignant catarrhal fever. Gammaherpesvirus infections have been fully characterized in only a few ruminant species, and the overall diversity, host range, and biologic effects of most are not known. This study investigated the presence and host distribution of gammaherpesviruses in ruminant species at two facilities, the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. We tested antemortem (blood, nasal or oropharyngeal swabs) or postmortem (internal organs) samples from 715 healthy or diseased ruminants representing 96 species and subspecies, using a consensus-based herpesvirus PCR for a segment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Among the 715 animals tested, 161 (22.5%) were PCR and sequencing positive for herpesvirus, while only 11 (6.83%) of the PCR positive animals showed clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever. Forty-four DPOL genotypes were identified of which only 10 have been reported in GenBank. The data describe viral diversity within species and individuals, identify host ranges of potential new viruses, and address the proclivity and consequences of interspecies transmission during management practices in zoological parks. The discovery of new viruses with wide host ranges and presence of co-infection within individual animals also suggest that the evolutionary processes influencing Gammaherpesvirus diversity are more complex than previously recognized.en_US


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© 2021 Partin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2021 Partin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.